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Pig Brain Defects Not Caused by BSE

by 5m Editor
14 October 2009, at 9:07am

UK - From their study published in BMC Veterinary Research, T. Konold from the Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge and co-authors conclude that BSE-like defects in the brain of pigs are not caused by a transmissible agent. They raise the possibility that the BSE agent may produce a prion disease in pigs that remains undetected by current post-mortem tests.

Konold and his co-authors explain that histopathological examinations of brains from healthy pigs have revealed localised vacuolar changes, predominantly in the rostral colliculus, that are similar to the neuropil vacuolation featured in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and have been described in pigs challenged parenterally with the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

Feedstuff containing BSE-contaminated meat and bone meal (MBM) may have been fed to pigs prior to the ban of mammalian MBM in feed of farmed livestock in the United Kingdom in 1996, but there is no evidence of the natural occurrence of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in the domestic pig.

Furthermore, experimental transmission of BSE to pigs by the oral route has been unsuccessful.

So Konold and colleagues investigated whether the localised vacuolar changes in the porcine brain were associated with a transmissible aetiology and therefore biologically significant.

Two groups of ten pigs were inoculated parenterally with vacuolated rostral colliculus from healthy pigs either born before 1996 or born after 1996. Controls included ten pigs similarly inoculated with rostral colliculus from New Zealand-derived pigs and nine pigs inoculated with a bovine BSE brain homogenate.

Results

None of the pigs inoculated with rostral colliculus developed a TSE-like neurological disease up to five years post-inoculation when the study was terminated, and disease-associated prion protein (PrPd) was not detected in the brains of these pigs. By contrast, eight of nine BSE-inoculated pigs developed neurological signs, two of which had detectable PrPd by post-mortem tests. No significant histopathological changes were detected to account for the clinical signs in the PrPd-negative, BSE-inoculated pigs.

Conclusions

The findings in this study suggest that vacuolation in the porcine rostral colliculus is not caused by a transmissible agent and is probably a clinically insignificant change, according to Konold and his team.

However, they say that the presence of neurological signs in pigs inoculated with BSE without detectable PrPd raises the possibility that the BSE agent may produce a prion disease in pigs that remains undetected by the current post-mortem tests.

Reference

Konold T., J. Spiropoulos, M.J. Chaplin, L. Thorne, Y.I. Spencer, G.A.H. Wells and S.A.C. Hawkins. 2009. Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs. BMC Veterinary Research, 5:35. doi:10.1186/1746-6148-5-35

Further Reading

- You can view the provisional version of the full report by clicking here.