Genome Mapping for Pig and Cow Funded

by 5m Editor
7 April 2003, at 12:00am

URBANA- Three University of Illinois researchers were recently awarded $3 million dollars to use over a five-year period to create comprehensive genome maps of the pig and the cow.

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"It took a billion dollars to sequence the human genome. The National Institutes of Health had this huge investment in technology, people and equipment and they finished early," said Lawrence Schook, animal science geneticist, "so they decided to use the remainder of the resources to sequence the genomes of other species." The research funded by USDA will be the first step toward sequencing the cow and pig genomes.

Schook, along with Jonathan Beever and Harris Lewin, who are also animal science geneticists at the U of I in the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences were selected to develop detailed maps of the cow and the pig using the facilities at the U of I Keck Center. For about ten years, the three researchers have been studying genes that have an economic impact such as disease resistance, lactation and growth. Schook and Beever study cows and Lewin studies pigs.

Schook explained that in the evolutionary sense cows, pigs and humans have something in common -- a placenta. But they have enough differences to make contrasting easy. "Having the gene maps and sequences of other species, particularly other mammals, will help us better understand the human genome."

"There are hidden secrets in the coding," said Lewin. "Only a small part of the genes encode protein. About 5% of gene coding of the cow, the pig and the human is very similar. Another 5% is similar but non-coding. The other 90% is what we call 'DNA glue.' It either doesn't do anything, or codes unknown functions."

Geneticists think that minor differences in the 5% of the coding that is similar and the 5% that is the same but noncoding DNA is what makes a cow a cow and a pig a pig. By looking at gene sequences for different species side-by-side, comparing and contrasting, scientists can better understand how cows, pigs and humans evolved.

"The honey bee genome, for example, was relatively simple to map because of its smaller size," said Lewin, "and although very different from humans, it is hard-wired genetically for certain behaviors so we can learn something about human social behavior and aggression from the honey bee." That work is being performed by University of Illinois entomologist Gene Robinson.

"We were very fortunate," said Schook. "I was at the U of I for a number of years and then left. I came back because I wanted to do genetic work that would help agriculture. This project was presented many years ago when I was here the first time but didn't get funded. This was the right time, because of the extra years of funding available and the great technological advances made in genomics."

Source: ACES News - 7th Arpil 2003

5m Editor