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Bordetellosis

This disease affects all pigs. The key clinical signs include coughing; sneezing; nasal discharge.

Background and history

Bordetella bronchiseptica is a bacterium found in most if not all pig populations. Some strains cause a mild and non-progressive rhinitis that heals spontaneously. The disease is clinically and economically of no consequence. However if toxigenic pasteurella are present in the herd then a combination of the two organisms can produce severe progressive rhinitis (PAR).

Bordetella bronchiseptica can be a secondary opportunist invader in pneumonia.

Clinical signs

  • Coughing.
  • Sneezing.
  • Nasal discharge.

Diagnosis

This is based on cultural and laboratory examinations.

Causes

  • High levels of the bacteria may predominate in poor environments.
  • Recirculation of air in nurseries allows a build-up of organisms.
  • Continual use of housing.

Prevention

  • Tidiness of environments.
  • No treatment needed unless levels are high.
  • In-feed medicate with trimethoprim sulpha or chlortetracycline.
  • Inject weaners with oxytetracycline long-acting at weaning.

Treatment

Bordetellosis can be treated using:

  • Ampicillin.
  • Cloxacillin.
  • Enrofloxacin.
  • Erythromycin.
  • Streptomycin.
  • Sulphonamides:
    • Sulphadimidine.
    • Trimethoprim sulphonamide.
  • Tetracyclines.