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Welfare and disease issues in outdoor systems

Abortion

  • Cold wet conditions
  • Draughts
  • Feed intake
  • Heat stress
  • Parasites
  • Poor nutrition
  • Season
  • Sunlight

Agalactia

  • Faulty nutrition
  • Frozen or inadequate water supplies

Clostridial infections

  • No vaccination

Erysipelas

  • Exposure to the organism and failure to vaccinate

Infertility

  • Fighting
  • Hot weather
  • Lack of adequate wallows
  • Lame boars
  • Overuse of boars (especially young ones)
  • Shortage of shade
  • Trauma to the boar's penis

Haemorrhage from the penis

  • Associated with the sandy soils

Lameness

  • Bad feet
  • Flint land
  • Mycoplasma
  • Leg weakness (OCD)
  • Wet land

Leptospirosis

  • Associated with the constant exposure of sows to
  • contaminated wallows or water
  • Exposure to rodents

Loss of body condition

  • Associated with the leaner genotype that is used
  • as a terminal sire
  • Inadequate feed
  • Poor feed presentation
  • Poor parasite control

Mortality (piglets)

  • Bad management
  • Cannibalism
  • Crows
  • Foxes
  • Poor bedding
  • Poor environment
  • Sloping floors

Parasites

  • Continual exposure to eggs and larvae particularly the stomach, nodular and lung worms
  • No worming programme
  • Old pastures

Sunburn

  • Lack of shelter
  • No wallows
  • White breeds