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Diseases and welfare issues associated with sow stalls and tethers

Abortion

  • Badly maintained concrete. Pools of urine
  • Decreasing daylight length
  • High air flow
  • Lack of boar contact
  • Lameness
  • Low feed levels
  • Low intensity of light
  • Low variable temperatures
  • Poor hygiene
  • Stressful environment

Abscess

  • Arthritis
  • Bad slats
  • Bursitis / trauma
  • Bush foot / trauma
  • Environmental trauma
  • Faulty vaccination
  • Poor concrete
  • Stalls too small

Arthritis

  • Leg weakness (OCD)
  • Slippery floors
  • Stalls to small
  • Trauma
  • Worn slats

Bursitis

  • Poor concrete surfaces
  • Trauma

Cystitis pyelonephritis

  • Frozen pipes.
  • Infrequent urination.
  • Lameness.
  • Once a day feeding.
  • Poor access to water.
  • Water shortage.

Hygroma

  • Poor concrete surfaces
  • Pressure sores
  • Trauma

Inability to express natural behaviour

  • Total individual confinement

Leg weakness (OCD) Lameness

  • See arthritis
  • Bush foot
  • New concrete or slats
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Poor selection of gilts
  • Poor slippery floor surfaces
  • Thin weak bones from lack of exercise
  • Worn slats
  • Young animals

Mastitis

  • Bad drainage
  • Poor hygiene
  • Solid gates in stalls
  • Trauma
  • Udder contamination

Neck and girth sores

  • Old worn-out or dirty tethers
  • Poor management
  • Tethers too tight, poor design

Overgrown distorted claws

  • Lack of exercise
  • Leg weakness factors
  • Slats wrong way, gaps too wide
  • Smooth surfaces

Prolapse rectum or vagina

  • Badly designed tail gates
  • Short standing area and a deep step
  • Slippery floors
  • Sloping floors

Shoulder sores

  • Poor concrete surfaces
  • Slippery floor surfaces
  • Thin animals

Slow farrowing

  • Lack of muscle tone
  • Old sows

Stereotypic behaviour

  • Boredom

Thin sow syndrome

  • Bullying
  • Disease (Cont.)
  • Draughts
  • Low feed intake
  • Mange
  • Parasite burdens
  • Poor environments (cold)
  • Poor nutrition

Vulval discharge

  • Build up of faeces behind the sow at the bottom of
  • the tail gate
  • Dirty weaning pens
  • Dirty wet boar pens