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Disease and welfare problems associated with cubicles and free-access stalls

Abortion

  • Decreasing daylight length
  • High air flow.
  • Lack of boar contact
  • Lameness
  • Low feed levels
  • Low intensity of light
  • Low temperatures
  • Low stocking density
  • Poor building insulation
  • Stress
  • Trauma

Abscess

  • Arthritis
  • Bad slats
  • Bullying
  • Bursitis from trauma
  • Bush foot from trauma
  • Environmental trauma
  • Faulty vaccination
  • Fighting
  • Poor concrete

Aggression

  • A feature of cubicle houses
  • Establishment of pecking order
  • Uneven group mixing of sows

Arthritis

  • Bullying
  • Bush foot - poor concrete
  • Fighting
  • No bedding
  • Leg weakness (OCD)

Bursitis

  • Fighting
  • Bullying
  • Trauma

Bush foot

  • Bad slats
  • Concrete kerbs
  • Poor concrete surfaces
  • Trauma

Cystitis pyelonephritis

  • Frozen pipes
  • Leg weakness
  • Poor access to water
  • Slippery concrete surfaces
  • Sows reluctant to drink
  • Water shortage

Erysipelas

  • Straw systems
  • Wet feeding
  • Wet pens

Fear and distress

  • From bullying
  • Mixing sows

Haematoma

  • Vulval biting

Hygroma

  • Pressure sores
  • Trauma

Infertility

  • High return rate and "not in pig" from aggression

Leg weakness (OCD)

Poor slippery floor surfaces

Water available at the front

Wet dunging areas

Wet lying areas

Young animals

Mastitis

  • No bedding
  • Poor concrete
  • Poor hygiene
  • Trauma
  • Wet pens

Parasites

  • Continuous access to faeces.
  • Inability to remove faeces adequately

Prolapse rectum or vagina

  • Badly designed tail gates
  • Slippery floors

Shoulder sores

  • Poor concrete surfaces
  • Thin animals
  • Trauma as animals rise

Thin sow syndrome

  • Disease
  • Draughts
  • Low feed intake
  • Low house temperatures
  • Parasite burdens
  • Poor environments
  • Poor nutrition

Vulval biting

  • Occurs towards the latter end of pregnancy

Vulval discharge

  • Dirty weaning pens
  • Dirty wet boar pens
  • Wet defecating areas